|MSDN Home > MSDN Library > User Interface Design and Development > Windows Controls > Individual Control Information > Rich Edit Controls >|
About Rich Edit Controls
The original specification for rich edit controls is Microsoft® Rich Edit 1.0; the current specification is Rich Edit 3.0. Each version of rich edit is a superset of the preceding one, except that only Asian builds of Rich Edit 1.0 have a vertical text option. Before creating a rich edit control, you should call the LoadLibrary function to verify which version of Rich Edit is installed. For more information, see What's New in Rich Edit.
The following table shows which DLL corresponds with which version of rich edit. Note that the name of the file did not change from version 2.0 to version 3.0. This allows version 2.0 to be upgraded to version 3.0 without breaking existing code.
The following list describes which versions of Rich Edit are included in which releases of Microsoft Windows®.
On Windows 95/98/Me, Rich Edit 1.0 is localized so that it works with a particular OS that is similarly localized. For example, on Japanese versions of an OS, Rich Edit 1.0 can display Japanese, but not Arabic.
The following topics are discussed in this section.
The following topics describe the new features introduced in each version of Rich Edit.
Rich Edit 1.0 includes the following features.
Rich Edit 2.0 incorporated several additional features, such as support for Unicode and Asian languages, multilevel Undo, Component Object Model (COM) interfaces, and numerous user interface (UI) enhancements.
With a few exceptions, Rich Edit 2.0 uses the same functions, structures, and messages as Rich Edit 1.0. Note, however, the following differences:
Rich Edit 3.0 is a single, scalable, world-wide dynamic-link library (DLL) that offers high performance and compatibility with Word in a small package. New features for Rich Edit 3.0 include richer text, zoom, font binding, more powerful IME support, and rich complex script support (bidirectional, Indic, and Thai).
Rich Edit 3.0 includes the following features in addition to the features provided by Rich Edit Version 2.0.
To create a rich edit control, call the CreateWindowEx function, specifying the rich edit window class. If you are using Rich Edit 1.0 (Riched32.dll), specify RichEdit for the window class parameter. If you are using Rich Edit 2.0 or later (Riched20.dll), specify RICHEDIT_CLASS for the window class parameter.
Rich edit controls support most of the window styles used with edit controls as well as additional styles. You should specify the ES_MULTILINE window style if you want to allow more than one line of text in the control.
Note To use visual styles with these controls, an application must include a manifest and must call InitCommonControls at the beginning of the program. For information on visual styles, see Visual Styles. For information on manifests, see Using Windows XP Visual Styles.
An application can send messages to a rich edit control to format characters and paragraphs to retrieve formatting information. Paragraph formatting attributes include alignment, tabs, indents, numbering, and simple tables. For characters, you can specify font name, size, color, and effects such as bold, italic, and protected.
You can apply paragraph formatting by using the EM_SETPARAFORMAT message. To determine the current paragraph formatting for the selected text, use the EM_GETPARAFORMAT message. The PARAFORMAT or PARAFORMAT2 structure is used with both messages to specify paragraph formatting attributes.
You can apply character formatting by using the EM_SETCHARFORMAT message. To determine the current character formatting for the selected text, you can use the EM_GETCHARFORMAT message. The CHARFORMAT or CHARFORMAT2 structure is used with both messages to specify character attributes.
You can also use EM_SETCHARFORMAT and EM_GETCHARFORMAT messages to set and retrieve the character formatting of the insertion point, which is the formatting applied to any subsequently inserted characters. For example, if an application sets the default character formatting to bold and the user then types a character, that character is bold.
The character formatting of the insertion point is applied to newly inserted text only if the current selection is empty (if the current selection is an insertion point). Otherwise, the new text assumes the character formatting of the text it replaces. If the selection changes, the default character formatting changes to match the first character in the new selection.
The protected character effect is unique in that it does not change the appearance of text. If the user attempts to modify protected text, a rich edit control sends its parent window an EN_PROTECTED notification message, allowing the parent window to allow or prevent the change. To receive this notification message, you must enable it by using the EM_SETEVENTMASK message.
Foreground color is always a character attribute. In Rich Edit 1.0, background color is only a property of the rich edit control. To set the default background color, use the EM_SETBKGNDCOLOR message. Note, Rich Edit does not support the WM_CTLCOLOREDIT message.
The user can select text in a rich edit control by using the mouse or the keyboard. The current selection is the range of selected characters, or the position of the insertion point if no characters are selected. An application can get information about the current selection, set it, determine when it changes, and show or hide the selection highlight.
To determine the current selection in a rich edit control, use the EM_EXGETSEL message. To set the current selection, use the EM_EXSETSEL message. The CHARRANGE structure is used with both messages and specifies a range of characters. To retrieve information about the contents of the current selection, you can use the EM_SELECTIONTYPE message.
An application can detect when the current selection changes by processing the EN_SELCHANGE notification message. The notification message specifies a SELCHANGE structure containing information about the new selection. A rich edit control sends this notification message only if you enable it by using the EM_SETEVENTMASK message.
By default, a rich edit control shows and hides the selection highlight when it gains and loses the focus. You can show or hide the selection highlight at any time by using the EM_HIDESELECTION message. For example, an application might provide a Search dialog box to find text in a rich edit control. The application might select matching text without closing the dialog box, in which case it must use the EM_HIDESELECTION message to highlight the selection.
As with edit controls, you can specify the ES_NOHIDESEL window style to prevent a rich edit control from hiding the selection highlight when it loses the focus.
As an alternative to using the EM_EXGETSEL and EM_EXSETSEL messages, you can retrieve and set the current selection by using the EM_GETSEL and EM_SETSEL edit control messages. The EM_GETSEL message packs two 16-bit character indexes into its 32-bit return value and therefore, works only for selections that fall entirely within the first 64K. However, a rich edit control will never contain more than 32K characters of text, unless you extend this limit by using the EM_LIMITTEXT or EM_EXLIMITTEXT message. For selections that extend beyond the first 64KB of text, the EM_GETSEL message returns – 1. In such a case you can still use the values returned in wParam and lParam to find the start and end characters of the selection.
An application can send messages to retrieve or find text in a rich edit control. You can retrieve either the selected text or a specified range of text.
To get the selected text in a rich edit control, use the EM_GETSELTEXT message. The text is copied to the specified character array. You must ensure that the array is large enough to hold the selected text plus a terminating null character.
To retrieve a specified range of text, use the EM_GETTEXTRANGE message. The TEXTRANGE structure used with this message specifies the text range to retrieve and points to a character array that receives the text. Here again, the application must ensure that the array is large enough for the specified text plus a terminating null character.
You can search for a string in a rich edit control by using the EM_FINDTEXT message. The FINDTEXT structure used with this message specifies the text range to search and the string to search for. You can also specify such options as whether the search is case sensitive.
Rich Edit 3.0 also supports the HexToUnicode IME, which allows a user to convert between hexadecimal and Unicode by using hot keys. For more information, see HexToUnicode IME.
A rich edit control calls a function called a word-break procedure to find breaks between words and to determine where it can break lines. The control uses this information when performing word-wrap operations and when processing CTRL+LEFT ARROW key and CTRL+RIGHT ARROW key combinations. An application can send messages to a rich edit control to replace the default word-break procedure, to retrieve word-break information, and to determine what line a given character falls on.
Word-break procedures for rich edit controls are similar to those for edit controls, but they have additional capabilities: word-break procedures for both kinds of controls can determine whether a character is a delimiter and can find the nearest word break before or after the specified position. A delimiter is a character that marks the end of a word, such as a space. Usually, in an edit control, a word break occurs only after delimiters. However, different rules apply to most Asian languages.
Word-break procedures for rich edit controls also group characters into character classes, each identified by a value in the range 0x00 through 0x0F. Breaks occur either after delimiters or between characters of different classes. Thus, a word-break procedure with different classes for alphanumeric and punctuation characters would find two word breaks in the string "Win.doc" (before and after the period).
A character's class can be combined with zero or more word-break flags to form an 8-bit value. When performing word-wrap operations, a rich edit control uses word-break flags to determine where it can break lines. Rich Edit uses the following word-break flags.
The WBF_BREAKAFTER value is used to allow wrapping after a character that does not mark the end of a word, such as a hyphen.
You can replace the default word-break procedure for a rich edit control, with your own procedure by using the EM_SETWORDBREAKPROC message. For more information about word-break procedures, see the description of the EditWordBreakProc function.
Note This replacement is not recommended for Rich Edit control 2.0 and later, due to the complexity of multilingual word breaking.
For Rich Edit 1.0, you can use the EM_SETWORDBREAKPROCEX message to replace the default extended word-break procedure with an EditWordBreakProcEx function. This function provides additional information about the text, such as the character set. You can use the EM_GETWORDBREAKPROCEX message to retrieve the address of the current extended word-break procedure. Note that Rich Edit 2.0 and later do not support EditWordBreakProcEx, EM_GETWORDBREAKPROCEX, and EM_SETWORDBREAKPROCEX.
You can use the EM_FINDWORDBREAK message to find word breaks or to determine a character's class and word-break flags. In turn, the control calls its word-break procedure to get the requested information.
To determine which line a given character falls on, you can use the EM_EXLINEFROMCHAR message.
An application can paste the contents of the clipboard into a rich edit control using either the best available clipboard format or a specific clipboard format. You can also determine whether a rich edit control is capable of pasting a clipboard format.
As with an edit control, you can copy or cut the contents of the current selection by using the WM_COPY or WM_CUT message. Similarly, you can paste the contents of the clipboard into a rich edit control by using the WM_PASTE message. The control pastes the first available format that it recognizes, which presumably is the most descriptive format.
To paste a specific clipboard format, you can use the EM_PASTESPECIAL message. This message is useful for applications with a Paste Special command that enables the user to select the clipboard format. You can use the EM_CANPASTE message to determine whether a given format is recognized by the control.
You can also use the EM_CANPASTE message to determine whether any available clipboard format is recognized by a rich edit control. This message is useful when processing the WM_INITMENUPOPUP message. An application might enable or gray its Paste command depending on whether the control can paste any available format.
Rich edit controls register two clipboard formats:
An application can register these formats by using the RegisterClipboardFormat function, specifying the CF_RTF and CF_RETEXTOBJ values.
You can use streams to transfer data into or out of a rich edit control. A stream is defined by an EDITSTREAM structure, which specifies a buffer and an application defined–callback function.
To read data into a rich edit control (that is, stream in the data), use the EM_STREAMIN message. The control repeatedly calls the application's callback function, which transfers a portion of the data into the buffer each time.
To save the contents of a rich edit control (that is, stream out the data), you can use the EM_STREAMOUT message. The control repeatedly writes to the buffer and then calls the application's callback function. For each call, the callback function saves the contents of the buffer.
You can send messages to a rich edit control to render its output for a specified device, such as a printer. You can also specify the output device for which a rich edit control formats its text.
To format part of a rich edit control's contents for a specific device, you can use the EM_FORMATRANGE message. The FORMATRANGE structure used with this message specifies the range of text to format as well as the device context for the target device.
After formatting text for an output device, you can send the output to the device by using the EM_DISPLAYBAND message. By repeatedly using the EM_FORMATRANGE and EM_DISPLAYBAND messages, an application that prints the contents of a rich edit control can implement banding. (Banding is the division of output into smaller parts for printing purposes.)
You can use the EM_SETTARGETDEVICE message to specify the target device for which a rich edit control formats its text. This message is useful for WYSIWYG formatting, in which an application positions text using the default printer's font metrics instead of the screen's.
An application can resize a rich edit control as needed so that it is always the same size as its contents. A rich edit control supports this so-called bottomless functionality by sending its parent window an EN_REQUESTRESIZE notification message whenever the size of its content changes.
When processing the EN_REQUESTRESIZE notification message, an application should resize the control to the dimensions in the specified REQRESIZE structure. An application might also move any information near the control to accommodate the control's change in height. To resize the control, you can use the SetWindowPos function.
To receive EN_REQUESTRESIZE notification messages, you must enable the notification by using the EM_SETEVENTMASK message.
A rich edit control's parent window can process notification messages to monitor events affecting the control. Rich edit controls support all of the notification messages used with edit controls as well as several additional ones. You can determine which notification messages a rich edit control sends its parent window by setting its event mask.
To set the event mask for a rich edit control, use the EM_SETEVENTMASK message. You can retrieve the current event mask for a rich edit control by using the EM_GETEVENTMASK message. For a list of event mask flags, see Rich Edit Control Event Mask Flags.
A rich edit control's parent window can filter all keyboard and mouse input to the control by processing the EN_MSGFILTER notification message. The parent window can prevent the keyboard or mouse message from being processed or can change the message by modifying the specified MSGFILTER structure.
An application can process the EN_PROTECTED notification message to detect when the user attempts to modify protected text. To mark a range of text as protected, you can set the protected character effect. For more information, see Text Formatting.
You can enable the user to drop files in a rich edit control by processing the EN_DROPFILES notification message. The specified ENDROPFILES structure contains information about the files being dropped.
Rich Edit 3.0 will assign a charset to plain-text characters depending on their context. Some examples are:
Note The rich edit control uses Unicode internally, so this use of charset differs from the original one used in font specifications. But CHARFORMAT has a well-defined place for the charset.
Neutral characters like blanks and digits are assigned a charset depending on their context. For example, a blank surrounded by characters of the same charset gets that charset. Neutrals and digits used for bidirectional text are assigned charsets in a way based on the Unicode bidirectional algorithm.
Once charsets are assigned, Rich Edit scans the text around the insertion point forward and backward to find the nearest fonts that have been used for the charsets. If no font is found for a charset, rich edit uses the font chosen by the client for that charset. If the client hasn't specified a font for the charset, rich edit uses the default font for that charset. If the client wants some other font, the client can always change it, but this approach will work most of the time. The current default font choices are based on the following table. Note that the default fonts are set per-process, and there are separate lists for UI usage and for non-UI usage.
Therefore, in the default font-binding table (entries have charset, font name, size), Rich Edit allows ANSI_CHARSET to match several charsets, while the appropriate charset matches other fonts on a one-to-one basis. More precisely, rich edit uses the ANSI_CHARSET choice whenever no other alternative is found. You will be able to specify a finer granularity than this, for example: assign a specific ARABIC_CHARSET for Arabic runs, a specific Greek font for Greek runs, for example. This finer granularity will also be used if a font with the desired charset stamp is found somewhere in the document before the area being font-bound.
Note that Rich Edit does not currently handle a missing glyph in a font that claims to support a charset but is incomplete. At display time in a complex script, Rich Edit does end up knowing that such a glyph is missing, but it does not cause the backing store to use a new font. Normally, the underlying font linking of the OS will accomplish this.
Rich edit controls support most but not all functionality for multiline edit controls. This section lists the edit control messages and window styles that are not supported by rich edit controls.
The following messages are processed by edit controls but not by rich edit controls.
The following window styles are used with multiline edit controls but not with rich edit controls: ES_LOWERCASE, ES_UPPERCASE, and ES_OEMCONVERT.
|Contact Us | E-Mail this Page | MSDN Flash Newsletter|